Self-care deficit conceptual model
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This’s Valonie Discussion Post ↓ Orem’s self-care deficit conceptual model and Abdellah’s patient-centered approach to nursing theory can be used by the advanced practice nurse (APN) to provide high-quality, individualized care to their clients. These frameworks can help the advanced practice nurse consider the patient’s overall capacity and ability to maintain their health and examine the areas that benefit the patient the most.
Orem’s theory of self-care deficit conceptual model examines the role of nursing in helping to improve patient care when patients have deficits that affect their ability to care for themselves. The theory outlines critical concepts that affect a person’s ability to care for themselves. The four main points of Orem’s concept of self-care include a person’s fundamental abilities that are affected by personal character traits, conditioning factors of the environment, self-care requisites of the elements required for optimal self-care, and their knowledge from theories and practicality on how to care for themselves (Yip, 2021). The main components of Orem’s theory of self-care make it helpful in providing higher quality health care to clients because it individualizes the care that the practitioner provides to the needs of each patient. Providing a higher quality of care to clients includes determining their attitudes towards their health, health literacy, sociocultural beliefs, developmental stages, and availability of resources to achieve self-care. APNs diagnose, prescribe, and treat their clients according to medical theories and standards of practice, but they must also be efficient in allowing transparency between theory and practice. An example is the APN recognizing that the patient cannot follow through with the proposed care plan due to issues such as medication adherence, compliance, and following up with routine or specialist visits. The APN should communicate to the patient ways to provide available resources to the client so they can improve their participation in their care.
The patient-centered approach theory helps the APN maintain a treatment focus on the patient rather than the disease. Theorist Faye Abdellah developed the patient-centered approach theory, identifying ways of maintaining the patient’s need for physical, psychological, and social balance (Mehraeen et al., 2020). Maintaining this balance helps to abort potential health problems from arising or solve them early on. A thorough interaction with the patient includes a comprehensive assessment with good communication skills, which can help the nurse identify social and psychological problems (Mehraeen et al., 2020). This theory helps the APN provide a higher quality of health care to clients by helping them get to know their patients and their health needs better so that they can treat the client and not only their diagnosis. Clinically, this may translate into using an alternative line of treatment for a patient because the patient may not be able to adhere to the textbook treatment plan. For example, when prescribing antibiotics for an uninsured patient with an infection, the practitioner should consider not only the first-line therapy but also one that the uninsured patient can easily afford. If the patient cannot afford the medication, the prescription is of no use to the patient. By helping the patient maintain a physical, psychological, and social balance, the APN can increase the likelihood of patient compliance, adherence, resolution of symptoms, healing, and overall wellness for their clients.
This’s Johana Discussion Post ↓
Theories and Conceptual Models of Nursing
There are various theories and conceptual models of nursing that can be used by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Advanced practice nursing is supported by discipline-specific theoretical knowledge that draws on philosophical perspectives based on an ethical approach toward humans and their environment (Yip, 2021).
A conceptual model of nursing provides a framework for reflection, observation, and interpretation of phenomena, and, specifically, it provides guidelines and guidance for aspects of clinical practice (Vieira et al., 2021). Conceptual models are widely used by APNs during practice. A common example is using the Wong-Baker FACES pain scaling scale. This scale is used to determine a child’s pain by showing him multiple sad and happy faces. Also, there is a numerical one for adults from 1-10 that I personally used every day at the emergency department (Butts & Rich, 2015). Other types of measurements that aid with observation in patients are physiological measures, which include vital signs like a blood pressure reading, laboratory levels, and input and output. However, there are some measurements that can be self-reported, like a patient reporting how many times they had a bowel movement or how many times they felt palpitations in a 24-hour period. All of these conceptual models can aid APNs to make an appropriate diagnosis and to provide adequate treatment.
Environmental theories of various kinds are designed to guide action and to bring our facts in line with our values and our values with facts (Gray et al., 2018). The main problems faced in environmental theories are the lack of natural resources and population. Many believe they are caused by the overconsumption of resources while others believe it’s due to how large the human population has grown (Gray et al., 2018). No matter the cause what we can all agree is that these problems can lead to many healthcare issues. While environmental theories are typically applied to ethics and to, the interaction between facts and values within environmental theories is also instructive for many healthcare decisions (Gray et al., 2018). The way in which people understand value affects their behavior hence why educating patients as APNs is a necessity that can affect our environment.
Economic theory is a type of theory that normally people would not think APNs could use. However, economics is considered both a social science and a foundational form of knowledge. Additionally, healthcare economics has been recently developed and it conveys the uncertainties in the incidence of disease and the efficacy of treatments that lead to inefficient allocation of resources. This forces non-market institutions to compensate for these inequalities, which is something that affects all healthcare professionals’ theories (Gray et al., 2018). The interest in economics is human behavior in the choices and interactions taken to overcome the problem of scarce resources with alternative uses theory (Gray et al., 2018). Advanced practice nurses in select fields are likely to have used clinical applications of some of the assumptions of classical economic theory in the form of social exchange theory (Gray et al., 2018).