Immunoglobulins molecular classes
Please respond to each discussion forum with apa formatting and references with a paragraph or more for each.
Active immunity is the outcome of the immune system producing antibodies against a disease after being exposed to the disease organism. Active immunity can be acquired either naturally or as a result of vaccination. When antibodies against a disease are supplied to a person rather than being produced by their own immune system, passive immunity is established (CDC, 2021). Both are acquired differently. For example, an example of active immunity is an individual who recovers from the measles. That individual is now immune from further infections. A mother giving antibodies to a fetus through the placenta and to a child through mother’s milk is an illustration of passive immunity. Proteins called immunoglobulins, which are produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes, are exclusive to these cell types (Justiz et al, 2022). They are vital to the body’s immune system. There are five molecular classes of immunoglobulins: IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, and IgD. They all play a specific role. IgM is principally created during the first immune response to pathogens or antigens. The secondary immune response to infections is mostly where IgG is generated. It is the only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta because its Fc portion may attach to receptors there. The main antibody present in secretions such as saliva, tears, colostrum, intestinal, vaginal, and respiratory secretions is IgA. In addition to providing parasite protection, IgE interacts with high-affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils, resulting in allergic responses. It is regarded as the most crucial host defense against many parasite diseases. Last but not least, IgD has an unidentified role in the defense against infections. It could be crucial for antigen-triggered lymphocyte differentiation (Justiz, 2022). The immune response prevents spread and finally heals the infection because some viral agents need to exit the infected cell in order to propagate.
CDC (2021, September 24). Types of immunity to a disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/immunity-types.htm
Justiz Vaillant AA, Jamal Z, Patel P, et al. Immunoglobulin. [Updated 2022 Sep 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513460/
Describe and discuss transmission, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is transmitted by sharing the infected body fluids such as blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. Some methods of transmission that facilitate sharing of these body fluids include unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transmission, sharing needles among IV drug users, and vertical transmission to the child from the mother (Showa et al., 2019). Once the virus enters the bloodstream, it adheres to and enters the CD4 cells where it replicates and integrates itself into the host DNA. It continuously destroys the CD4 thus contributing to immunosuppression (Oka et al., 2020). With lowered immunity, an individual’s response to infections in the body is reduced and there is a higher risk of opportunistic infections, chronic illness, and specific malignancies. This informs the clinical manifestations identified in the affected individuals.
The clinical manifestation of untreated HIV / AIDS includes significant weight loss, often accompanied by diarrhea, chronic weakness, and fever. HIV can also cause neurological symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, depression, anxiety, and difficulty walking. Other manifestations are related to opportunistic infections that are common in HIV/AIDS. The treatment might help address these symptoms.
HIV is not a treatable disease but drugs can help improve symptoms. The drug classes that can be utilized during therapy include CCR5 Antagonist and Post-Attachment Inhibitor that the virus prevents their entry into CD4 cells and Fusion Inhibitor which prevents its merging with the CD4 (Saag et al., 2020). Others also include Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI), Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor (INSTI), and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) that prevent its multiplication within the cell and Protease Inhibitor (PI) that prevents its cleavage into functional proteins. Given HIV/AIDS is not treatable, prevention can be enhanced to minimize its cases and complications. Some of the prevention strategies include abstinence, never sharing needles, screening for HIV/AIDS before blood transfusion, and appropriate condom use.
Oka, S., Ikeda, K., Takano, M., Ogane, M., Tanuma, J., Tsukada, K., & Gatanaga, H. (2020). Pathogenesis, clinical course, and recent issues in HIV-1-infected Japanese hemophiliacs: a three-decade follow-up. Global Health & Medicine, 2(1), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.35772/ghm.2019.01030 Links to an external site.
Saag, M. S., Gandhi, R. T., Hoy, J. F., Landovitz, R. J., Thompson, M. A., Sax, P. E., Smith, D. M., Benson, C. A., Buchbinder, S. P., Del Rio, C., Eron, J. J., Jr, Fätkenheuer, G., Günthard, H. F., Molina, J.-M., Jacobsen, D. M., & Volberding, P. A. (2020). Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults: 2020 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA panel: 2020 Recommendations of the international antiviral society-USA panel. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 324(16), 1651–1669. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.17025 Links to an external site.
Showa, S. P., Nyabadza, F., & Hove-Musekwa, S. D. (2019). On the efficiency of HIV transmission: Insights through discrete time HIV models. PloS One, 14(9), e0222574. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222574 Links to an external site.
Stress is a condition of threatened homeostasis brought on by internal or external unfavorable influences (stressors), and it is combated by a complex array of physiological and behavioral reactions intended to preserve or reestablish the ideal state of bodily equilibrium (eustasis) (Tsigos et al, 2020). A person generally experiences stress when a demand surpasses their capacity for coping, leading to reactions including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral abnormalities that may be harmful to their well-being (Huether & McCance, 2014). Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex while under stress. As a result, more glucocorticoid hormones, particularly cortisol, are secreted by the adrenocortical gland. All bodily tissues, including the brain, are targeted by these steroid molecules. They exert major, varied biological impacts because they spare nearly no tissue or organ and affect a sizable chunk of the human genome. While other tissues passively absorb the effects of circulating glucocorticoids, the HPA axis senses and regulates the amounts of these hormones. Numerous illnesses, including obesity, sleep deprivation, lip deformities, hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, loss of bone density, hippocampus atrophy, and cognitive impairment have been associated to chronic dysregulation of the HPA axis, particularly high cortisol levels (Huether & McCance, 2014).
Huether, S., McCance, K. (2014). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences (US). https://online.vitalsource.com/books/9780323088541
Tsigos C, Kyrou I, Kassi E, et al. Stress: Endocrine Physiology and Pathophysiology. [Updated 2020 Oct 17]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278995/
Increased Cortisol levels can negatively affect almost every organ system. Increased Cortisol and the stress response can be beneficial at first by activating the fight or flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. As long as the body continues to perceive any stimulus as a threat, cortisol is continuing to be released from the adrenal cortex and allows the body to continue to stay on high alert. Increased levels of Cortisol due to a chronic state of increased stress will have a negative outcome for the body. Take the heart, for example, there will be an increase in blood pressure and an increase in developing coronary artery disease because of the body’s constant state of stress and the constant release of cortisol.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2021, July 8). Chronic stress puts your health at risk. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 7, 2022, fromhttps://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037
McCance, K.L. & Huether, S.E. (Eds.). (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. (7th. ed.). Elsevier Mosby. https://online.vitalsource.com/books/9780323088541 Links to an external site.
Thau L, Gandhi J, Sharma S. Physiology, Cortisol. [Updated 2022 Aug 29]. In: StatPearls[Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538239/