The essay geekQuestion 3 Pavlov’s work helped shift the emphasis on research with subjective ideas to —————————-and —–
and connectionism are and how each is related to animal psychology and behaviorism. Question 3 Pavlov’s work helped shift the emphasis on research with subjective ideas to —————————-and ————————–events. This allowed researchers to study behavior by attempting to control behavior and change it. Question 4 When Watson was working on developing behaviorism he gave a lecture at Yale. What did he say about psychic or mental concepts in this lecture?A. He said they were important to learning more about psychology B.. He said mental concepts are more important than psychic C. He said they have no value to psychological scienceQuestion 5 According to Watson the only acceptable behaviorism methods included: (Select all that apply)A. testing methodsB. observation with/without instrumentsC. conditioned reflex methodD. verbal report methodQuestion 6 Briefly discuss how Karl Lashley and William McDougall’s perspective on behavior differed from Watson’s.Question 7 What major contributions to psychology arose from Watson’s behaviorism?A. methods became more objective B. terminology became more objective C. methods became more invasive for participantsD. terminology became more difficult to understandQuestion 8 Briefly discuss the 3 points that the people in the second stage of behaviorism (neobehaviorists) agreed on. Define purpose behaviorism and intervening variables.Question 9 Behavior modification is when one uses positive reinforcement to change or control an individual or a group’s behavior. True FalseQuestion 10 How did Bandura’s social cognitive theory differ from Skinner’s behaviorism?A. He used introspection in his research methods B. He found it important to include social interactions into research C. He thought behavior responses were triggered automatically Sep 16 2021Sample references Kopp, R. E., F. J. Simons, J. X. Mitrovica, A. C. Maloof, and M. Oppenheimer. 2009. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage. Nature 462:863-868, doi:10.1038/nature08686.;Kok, M., B. Metz, J. Verhagen, and S. Van Rooijen. 2008. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits. Climate Policy 8:103-118.;Knutti, R., G. A. Meehl, M. R. Allen, and D. A. Stainforth. 2006. Constraining climate sensitivity from the seasonal cycle in surface temperature. Journal of Climate 19:4224-4233.;Knutson, T. R., J. L. Mcbride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J. P. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience 3(3):157-163.;Knowles, N., M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan. 2006. Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. Journal of Climate 19(18):4545-4559.;Knight, J., J. J. Kennedy, C. Folland, G. Harris, G. S. Jones, M. Palmer, D. Parker, A. Scaife, and P. Stott. 2009. Do global temperature trends over the last decade falsify climate predictions? In “State of the Climate in 2008,” T. C. Peterson and M. O. Baringer, eds. Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90.;Klopper, E., C. H. Vogel, and W. A. Landman. 2006. Seasonal climate forecasts—Potential agricultural-risk management tools? Climatic Change 76(1-2):73-90.;Klein, R. J. T., S. E. H. Eriksen, L. O. Naess, A. Hammill, T. M. Tanner, C. Robledo, K. L. O’Brien. 2007. Portfolio screening to support the mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change into development assistance. Climatic Change, 84:23-44.;Kirshen, P., C. Watson, E. Douglas, A. Gontz, J. Lee, and Y. Tian. 2008. Coastal flooding in the northeastern United States due to climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13(5):437-451.;Kirllenko, A. and R. Sedjo. 2007. Climate change impacts on forestry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(50):19697-19702.;Kinlan, B. P., and S. D. Gaines. 2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: A community perspective. Ecology 84 (8):2007-2020.;Kingston, D. G., M. C. Todd, R. G. Taylor, J. R. Thompson, and N. W. Arnell. 2009. Uncertainty in the estimation of potential evapotranspiration under climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L20403.;King County. 2008. Vulnerability of Major Wastewater Facilities to Flooding from Sea-Level Rise. Seattle, WA: King County, Department of Natural Resources and Parks, Wastewater Treatment Division.;Kim, J., and D. Waliser. 2009. A Projection of the Cold Season Hydroclimate in California in Mid-Twenty-First Century Under the SRES-A1B Emission Scenario. Draft Paper. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.;Kim, H., S. Kim, and B. E. Dale. 2009. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: Some unexplored variables. Environmental Science and Technology 43:961-967.;Kildow, J., and C. S. Colgan. 2005. California’s Ocean Economy. Monterey, CA: National Ocean Economics Program.;Khvorostyanov, D. V., P. Ciais, and G. Krinner. 2008. Vulnerability of east Siberia’s frozen carbon stores to future warming. Geophysical Research Letters 35(10):L10703, doi:10710.11029/12008GL033639.;Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the ocean. Nature 462(7271):346-349.;Khagram, S., and S. Ali. 2006. Environment and security. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:395-411.;Khagram, S. 2004. Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.;Keutartz, J. 1999. Engineering the environment: The politics of nature development. Pp. 83-102 in Living with Nature: Environmental Politics as Cultural Discourse, F. Fischer and M. Hajer, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.;Keppler, F., J. T. G. Hamilton, M. Braãÿ, and T. Rockmann. 2006. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439(7073):187-191.;Kempton, W. 1991. Lay perspectives on global climate change. Pp. 29-69 in Energy Efficiency and the Environment: Forging the Link, E. L. Vine, D. Crawley, and P. Centolella, eds. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.;Kelly, P. M., and W. N. Adger. 2000. Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change 47(4):325-352.;Keith, D. W., J. F. Decarolis, D. C. Denkenberger, D. H. Lenschow, S. L. Malyshev, S. Pacala, and P. J. Rasch. 2004. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(46):16115-16120.;Keith, D. W. 2000. Geoengineering the climate: History and prospect. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25:245-284.;Kehrwald, N. M., L. G. Thompson, T. D. Yao, E. Mosley-Thompson, U. Schotterer, V. Alfimov, J. Beer, J. Eikenberg, and M. E. Davis. 2008. Mass loss on Himalayan glacier endangers water resources. Geophysical Research Letters 35(22).;Keeling, R. F., S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher, and J.S. Walker. 2009. Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, doi:10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035.;Keeling, C. D., S. C. Piper, R. B. Bacastow, M. Wahlen, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, and H. A. Meijer. 2005. Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: Observations and carbon cycle implications. Pp. 83-113 in A History of Atmospheric CO2and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems, J. R. Ehleringer, T. E. Cerling, and M. D. Dearing, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag.;Kaufman, D. S., D. P. Schneider, N. P. Mckay, C. M. Ammann, R. S. Bradley, K. R. Briffa, G. H. Miller, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. T. Overpeck, B. M. Vinther, and Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members. 2009. Recent warming reverses long-term Arctic cooling. Science 325(5945):1236-1239.;Katsouyanni, K., G. Touloumi, C. Spix, J. Schwarte, F. Balducci, S. Medina, G. Rossi, B. Wojtyniak, J. Sunyer, L. Bacharova, J. P. Schouten, A. Ponka, and H. R. Anderson. 1997. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: Results from time series data from the APHEA project. British Medical Journal 314(7095):1658-1663.;Katsman, C., W. Hazeleger, S. Drijfhout, G. Oldenborgh, and G. Burgers. 2008. Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: A study including the effects of ocean dynamics and gravity changes induced by ice melt. Climatic Change 91(3-4):351-374.;Kates, R., W. Hohenemser, and C. Kasperson. 1984.1984. Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology. A Westview Special Studies in Science, Technology and Public Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.;Kates, R. W., W. C. Clark, R. Corell, J. M. Hall, C. C. Jaeger, I. Lowe, J. J. Mccarthy, H. J. Schellnhuber, B. Bolin, N. M. Dickson, S. Faucheux, G. C. Gallopin, A. Grübler, B. Huntley, J. Jager, N. S. Jodha, R. E. Kasperson, A. Mabogunje, P. Matson, H. Mooney, B. Moore, T. O’riordan, and U. Svedin. 2001. Sustainability science. Science 292(5517):641-642.;Kates, R. W., C. E. Colten, S. Laska, and S. P. Leatherman. 2006. Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A research perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(40):14653-14660.;Kates, R. W. 2000. Cautionary tales: Adaptation and the global poor. Climatic Change 45(1):5-17.;Kasperson, J. X., R. E. Kasperson, and B. L. Turner. 2009. Vulnerability of coupled human-ecological systems to global environmental change. Pp. 231-294 in Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.;Karl, T. R., and C. N. Williams, Jr. 1987. An approach to adjusting climatological time series for discontinuous inhomogeneities. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 20:1744-1763.;Kapnick, S., and A. Hall. 2009. Observed Changes in the Sierra Nevada Snowpack: Potential Causes and Concerns. Sacramento: California Energy Commission. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-500-2009-016/CEC-500-2009-016-F.PDF. Accessed June 16, 2010.;Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, B. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(3):437-471.;Kalnay, E. 2002. Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation and Predictability. New York: Cambridge University Press, 350 pp.;Kalkstein, L. S., J. S. Greene, D. M. Mills, A. D. Perrin, J. P. Samenow, and J.-C. Cohen. 2008. Analog European heat waves for U.S. cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89(1):75-85.;Kalff, J. 2002. Limnology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.;JSOST (Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology). 2007. Charting the Course for Ocean Science for the United States for the Next Decade: An Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy. Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, 84 pp. Available at http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/niehs/JSOST_briefings_general.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010..;Jouzel, J., V. Masson-Delmotte, O. Cattani, G. Dreyfus, S. Falourd, G. Hoffmann, B. Minster, J. Nouet, J. M. Barnola, J. Chappellaz, H. Fischer, J. C. Gallet, S. Johnsen, M. Leuenberger, L. Loulergue, D. Luethi, H. Oerter, F. Parrenin, G. Raisbeck, D. Raynaud, A. Schilt, J. Schwander, E. Selmo, R. Souchez, R. Spahni, B. Stauffer, J. P. Steffensen, B. Stenni, T. F. Stocker, J. L. Tison, M. Werner, and E.W. Wolff. 2007. Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317(5839):793-797.;Joughin, I., S. Tulaczyk, R. Bindschadler, and S. F. Price. 2002. Changes in west Antarctic ice stream velocities: Observation and analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 107(B11).;Joughin, I., S. B. Das, M. A. King, B. E. Smith, I. M. Howat, and T. Moon. 2008. Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 320(5877):781-783.;Jorgenson, A. K. 2009. The transnational organization of production, the scale of degradation, and ecoefficiency: A study of carbon dioxide emissions in less-developed countries. Human Ecology Review 16(1):64-74.;Jorgenson, A. K. 2007. Does foreign investment harm the air we breathe and the water we drink? A cross-national study of carbon dioxide emissions and organic water pollution in less-developed countries, 1975 to 2000. Organization & Environment 20(2):137-156.;Jones, T. S., A. P. Liang, E. M. Kilbourne, M. R. Griffin, P. A. Patriarca, S. G. F. Wassilak, R. J. Mullan, R. F. Herrick, H. D. Donnell, K. W. Choi, and S. B. Thacker. 1982. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE JULY 1980 HEAT-WAVE IN ST-LOUIS AND KANSAS-CITY, MO. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association 247 (24):3327-3331.;Jones, P. G., and P. K. Thornton. 2003. The potential impacts of climate change on maize production in Africa and Latin America in 2055. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 13(1):51-59.;Joireman, J., H. Truelove, and B. Deull. In press. Effect of outdoor temperature, heat primes and anchoring on belief in global warming. Journal of Environmental Psychology.;Johnston, P. A., E. R. M. Archer, C. H. Vogel, C. N. Bezuidenhout, W. J. Tennant, and R. Kuschke. 2004. Review of seasonal forecasting in South Africa: Producer to end-user. Climate Research 28(1):67-82.;Jin, M. L., R. E. Dickinson, and D. L. Zhang. 2005. The footprint of urban areas on global climate as characterized by MODIS. Journal of Climate 18(10):1551-1565.;Jenkins, A., and D. Holland. 2007. Melting of floating ice and sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 34(16).;Jauregui, E., and E. Romales. 1996. Urban effects on convection precipitation in Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment 30:3382-3389.;Jaramillo, P., C. Samaras, H. Wakeley, and K. Meisterling. 2009. Greenhouse gas implications of using coal for transportation: Life cycle assessment of coal-to-liquids, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen pathways. Energy Policy 37(7):2689-2695.;Janzen, H. H. 2004. Carbon cycling in earth systems—a soil science perspective. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104(3):399-417.;Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K. R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Olago, B. Otto-Bliesner, W. R. Peltier, S. Rahmstorf, R. Ramesh, D. Raynaud, D. Rind, O. Solomina, R. Villalba, and D. Zhang. 2007. Palaeoclimate. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.;Janetos, A., L. Hansen, D. Inouye, B. P. Kelly, L. Meyerson, B. Peterson, and R. Shaw. 2008. Biodiversity. In The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Washington, DC: Climate Change Science Program.;Jamieson, D. 1996. Ethics and intentional climate change. Climatic Change 33(3):323-336.;Jaffe, A. B., R. G. Newell, and R.N. Stavins. 2005. A tale of two market failures: Technology and environmental policy. Ecological Economics 54(2-3):164-174.;Jaffe, A. B., and R. N. Stavins. 1994. The energy efficienct gap—What does it mean? Energy Policy 22(10):804-810.;Jaeger, C., O. Renn, E. A. Rosa, and T. Webler. 2001. Risk, Uncertainty and Rational Action. London: Earthscan.;Jacques, P. 2006. Downscaling climate models and environmental policy: From global to regional politics. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 49(2):301-307.;Jacob, D. J., and D. A. Winner. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43(1):51-63.;Jackson, R. B., J. T. Randerson, J. G. Canadell, R. G. Anderson, R. Avissar, D. D. Baldocchi, G. B. Bonan, K. Caldeira, N. S. Diffenbaugh, C. B. Field, B. A. Hungate, E. G. Jobbagy, L. M. Kueppers, M. D. Nosetto, and D. E. Pataki. 2008. Protecting climate with forests. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).;Jack, B. K., C. Kousky, and K. R. E. Sims. 2008. Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28):9465-9470.;Ito, K., S. F. De Leon, and M. Lippmann. 2005. Associations between ozone and daily mortality: Analysis and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 16(4):446-457.;IPCC. 2009. Chapter Outline of the Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), IPCC-XXXI/Doc. 20, Rev. 1 (28.X.2009), Bali, October 26-29. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/meeting_documentation/meeting_documentation_31th_session.htm. Accessed on October 26, 2010.;IPCC. 2007d. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 851 pp.;IPCC. 2007c. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 976 pp.;IPCC. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri, and A. Reisinger, eds. Geneva, 104 pp.;EPA. 2006. Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2020. Washington, DC: Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division.;EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002 (August). Estimated Per Capita Fish Consumption in the United States. Report EPA-821-C-02-003, Washington, DC.;Engle, N. L., and M. C. Lemos. 2010. Unpacking governance: Building adaptive capacity to climate change of river basins in Brazil. Global Environmental Change 20(1):4-13.;Enfield, D. B., A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, and P. J. Trimble. 2001. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophysical Research Letters 28:2077-2080.;Emanuel, K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436(7051):686-688.;Ellis, E. C., and N. Ramankutty. 2008. Putting people in the map: Anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8):439-447.;Elliott, D. L., L. L. Wendell, and G. L. Gower. 1991. An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States. Report PNL-7789. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory.;Eliasson, I. 2000. The use of climate knowledge in urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 48(1-2):31-44.;EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act) of 2007. P. L. 110-140, December 19, 2007.;EIA (Energy Information Agency). 2007. Renewable Energy Annual, 2005. Washington, DC: DOE.;EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2009. Annual Energy Review 2008. Washington, DC: EIA. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer/pdf/aer.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2010.;Eden, S. 2009. The work of environmental governance networks: Traceability, credibility and certification by the Forest Stewardship Council. Geoforum 40:383-394.;Eddy, J. A. 1976. Maunder minimum. Science 192(4245):1189-1202.;Ebi, K. L., J. Balbus, P. L. Kinney, E. Lipp, D. Mills, M. S. Oneill, and M. L. Wilson. 2009. US funding is insufficient to address the human health impacts of and public health responses to climate variability and change. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(6):857-862.;Ebi, K. L., and G. Mcgregor. 2008. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(11):1449-1455.;Easterling, W. E., P. K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K. M. Brander, L. Erda, S. M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J.-F. Soussana, J. Schmidhuber, and F. N. Tubiello. 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. Pp. 273-313 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.;Easterling, D. R., and M. F. Wehner. 2009. Is the climate warming or cooling? Geophysical Research Letters 36:L08706, doi:10.1029/2009GL037810.;Early, J. T. 1989. Space-based solar shield to offset greenhouse effect. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 42:567-569.;Eakin, H., E. L. Tompkins, D. R. Nelson, and J. M. Anderies. 2009. Hidden costs and disparate uncertainties: Trade-offs in approaches to climate policy. Pp. 212-226 in Living with Climate Change: Are There Limits to Adaptation? W. N. Adger et al., eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.;Eakin, H., and M. C. Lemos. 2006. Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change 16:7-18.;Eakin, H., and J. Conley. 2002. Climate variability and the vulnerability of ranching in southeastern Arizona: A pilot study. Climate Research 21(3):271-281.;Eakin, H., and A. L. Luers. 2006. Assessing the vulnerability of social-environmental systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:365-394.;Eagle, N., A. Pentland, and D. Lazer. 2009. Inferring friendship network structure by using mobile phone data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(36):15274-15278.;Dyurgerov, M., and M. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and the changing earth system: A 2004 snapshot. Occasional Paper, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Available at http://instaar.colorado.edu/other/download/OP58%5Fdyurgerov%5Fmeier.pdf.;Dutta, K., E. A. G. Schuur, J. C. Neff, and S. A. Zimov. 2006. Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of Northeastern Siberia. Global Change Biology 12(12):2336-2351.;Durieux, L., L. A. T. Machado, and H. Laurent. 2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sensing of Environment 86(1):132-140.;Durfee, J. L. 2006. “Social change” and “status quo” framing effects on risk perception: An exploratory experiment. Science Communication 27(4) :459-495.;Dueck, T. A., R. D. Visser, H. Poorter, S. Persijn, A. Gorissen, W. D. Visser, A. Schapendonk, J. Verhagen, J. Snel, F. J. M. Harren, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. Verstappen, H. Bouwmeester, L. A. C. J. Voesenek, and A. V. D. Werf. 2007. No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: A 13C-labelling approach. New Phytologist 175(1):29-35.;Dow, K., R. Kasperson, and M. Bohn. 2006. Exploring the social justice implications of adaptation and vulnerability. Pp. 79-96 in Fairness in Adaptation to Climatic Change, N. Adger, J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.;Douglas, M. 1985. Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences. Social Research Perspectives: Occasional Reports on Current Topics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.;DOT (Department of Transportation). 2008. Research and Innovative Technology Administration. National Transportation Statistics. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Available at http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics. Accessed May 3, 2010.;Donoghue, E. R., M. Nelson, G. Rudis, R. I. Sabogal, J. T. Watson, G. Huhn, and G. Luber. 2003. Heat-related deaths—Chicago, Illinois, 1996-2001, and United States, 1979-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 52(26);610-613;Donner, L. J., and W. G. Large. 2008. Climate modeling. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33(1):1-17.;Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:169-192.;DOI (Department of the Interior). 2009. Salazar Launches DOI Climate Change Response Strategy. Available at http://www.doi.gov/archive/news/09_News_Releases/091409.html. Accessed May 3, 2010.;DOE. 2010. Fossil Energy Techline: DOE Awards Cooperative Agreement for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://fossil.energy.gov/news/techlines/2010/10007-DOE_Awards_Cooperative_Agreement.html. Accessed March 12, 2010.;DOE. 2009c. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices. Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration. Washington, DC: DOE.;DOE. 2009b. Science Challenges and Future Directions: Climate Change Integrated Assessment Research. Report from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Workshop on Integrated Assessment, November 2008.;DOE. 2009a. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPreports/Shale_Gas_Primer_2009.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.;DOE. 2008b. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale. Report from the Workshop Held November 6-7. Washington, DC: DOE.;DOE. 2008a. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www.20percentwind.org/20percent_wind_energy_report_revOct08.pdf. Accessed May 8, 2010.;DOE. 2006. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.;DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2004. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.;Dodman, D. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization 21(1):185-201.;DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 2010 (February 1). The Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC: DOD.;Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans. 2003. Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophysical Research Letters 30(19):1992, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.;Dlugokencky, E. J., L. Bruhwiler, J. W. C. White, L. K. Emmons, P. C. Novelli, S. A. Montzka, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, A. M. Crotwell, J. B. Miller, and L. V. Gatti. 2009. Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (18):L18803.;Dilling, L., and B. Farhar. 2007. Making it easy: Establishing energy efficiency and renewable energy as routine best practice. In Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change, S. Moser and L. Dilling, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.;Diffenbaugh, N. S., C. H. Krupke, M. A. White, and C. E. Alexander. 2008. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).;Dietz, T., G. T. Gardner, J. Gilligan, P. C. Stern, and M. P. Vandenbergh. 2009b. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(44):18452-18456.;Dietz, T., E. Ostrom, and P. C. Stern. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907-1912.;Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009c. Human driving forces of global change: Dominant perspectives. In Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.;Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009a. Environmentally efficient well-being: Rethinking sustainability as the relationship between human well-being and environmental impacts. Human Ecology Review 16(1):114-123.;Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2007. Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1):13-18.;Dietz, T., and A. D. Henry. 2008. Context and the commons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:13189-13190.;Dietz, T. 1994. What should we do? Human ecology and collective decision making. Human Ecology Review 1:301-309.;Dietz, S., and N. Stern. 2008. Why economic analysis supports strong action on climate change: A response to the Stern Review’s critics. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 2(1):94-113.;Dickson, B., I. Yashayaev, J. Meincke, B. Turrell, S. Dye, and J. Holfort. 2002. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 416:832-837.;Diamond, J. M. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.;Dessai, S., W. N. Adger, M. Hulme, J. Turnpenny, J. Kohler, and R. Warren. 2004. Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change—an editorial essay. Climatic Change 64(1-2):11-25.;Dessai, S., and M. Hulme. 2007. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: A case study on water resources management in the east of England. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 17(1):59-72.;Department of Commerce. 1975. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States.;Denholm, P., E. Ela, B. Kirby, and M. Milligan. 2010. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation. NREL Report TP-6A2-47187. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, 61 pp.;Delta Vision Blue Ribbon Task Force. 2007. Delta Vision: Our Vision for the California Delta. Sacramento, CA: Resources Agency.;Defries, R., F. Achard, S. Brown, M. Herold, D. Murdiyarso, B. Schlamadinger, and C. De Souza. 2007. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Environmental Science and Policy 10(4):385-394.;Defries, R., and L. Bounoua. 2004. Consequences of land use change for ecosystem services: A future unlike the past. GeoJournal 61(4):345-351.;DeFries, R. S., T. Rudel, M. Uriarte, and M. Hansen. 2010. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience 3:178-181, doi:10.1038/NGEO756.;Day, J. W., D. F. Boesch, E. J. Clairain, G. P. Kemp, S. B. Laska, W. J. Mitsch, K. Orth, H. Mashriqui, D. J. Reed, L. Shabman, C. A. Simenstad, B. J. Streever, R. R. Twilley, C. C. Watson, J. T. Wells, and D. F. Whigham. 2007. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 315(5819):1679-1684.;Davis, S. C., S. W. Diegel, and R. G. Boundy. 2008. Transportation Energy Data Book, 27th ed. ORNL-6981. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.;Davis, S. C., K. J. Anderson-Teixeira, and E. H. DeLucia. 2009. Life-cycle analysis and the ecology of biofuels. Trends in Plant Science 14(3):140-146.;Davis, R. E., P. C. Knappenberger, P. J. Michaels, and W. M. Novicoff. 2004. Seasonality of climate-human mortality relationships in US cities and impacts of climate change. Climate Research 26(1):61-76.;Davis, B., and D. Belkin. 2008. Food inflation, riots spark worries for world leaders: IMF, World Bank push for solutions; Turmoil in Haiti. The Wall Street Journal, April 14.;Dasgupta, S., B. Laplante, H. Wang, and D. Wheeler. 2002. Confronting the environmental Kuznets curve. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(1):147-168.;Dasgupta, P., and F. Ramsey. 2008. Comments on the Stern Review’s Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Available at http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/faculty/dasgupta/STERN.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.;Das, S., and J. R. Vincent. 2009. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(18):7357-7360.;Darwin, R., M. Tsigas, J. Lewandrowski, and A. Raneses. 1995. World Agriculture and Climate Change: Economic Adaptations. Agricultural Economics Reports 33933, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.;Darwin, R. F., and R. S. J. Tol. 2001. Estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise. Environmental and Resource Economics 19(2):113-129.;Daley, R. 1991. Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.;Dalby, S. 2009. Security and Environmental Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.;Daily, G. C., S. Polasky, J. Goldstein, P. M. Kareiva, H. A. Mooney, L. Pejchar, T. H. Ricketts, J. Salzman, and R. Shallenberger. 2009. Ecosystem services in decision making: Time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):21-28.;Daily, G. C., and P. A. Matson. 2008. Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28):9455-9456.;Dailey, P. S., G. Zuba, G. Ljung, I. M. Dima, and J. Guin. 2009. On the relationship between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and US hurricane landfall risk. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48(1):111-129.;Dai, A. G., T. T. Qian, K. E. Trenberth, and J. D. Milliman. 2009. Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate 22(10):2773-2792.;Dai, A. G., K. E. Trenberth, and T. T. Qian. 2004. A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5(6):1117-1130.;Dabelko, G. D. 2009. Planning for climate change: The security community’s precautionary principle. Climatic Change 96(1-2):13-21.;Cvetkovich, G., and R. E. Loefstedt, eds. 1999. Social Trust and the Management of Risk. London: Earthscan.;Cutter, S. L., J. T. Mitchell, and M. S. Scott. 2000. Revealing the vulnerability of people and places: A case study of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90(4):713-737.;Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev. 2003. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426:826-829.;Curriero, F. C., K. S. Heiner, J. M. Samet, S. L. Zeger, L. Strug, and J. A. Patz. 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the eastern United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 155:80-87.;Csatho, B. M., J. F. Bolzan, C. J. Van Der Veen, A. F. Schenk, and D.-C. Lee. 1999. Surface velocities of a Greenland outlet glacierSurface velocities of a Greenland outlet glacier from high-resolution visible satellite imagery. Polar Geography 23(1):71-82.;Crutzen, P. J., A. R. Mosier, K. A. Smith, and W. Winiwarter. 2008. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(2):389-395.;Crutzen, P. 2006. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma? Climatic Change 77(3):211-220.;Crowell, M., S. Edelman, K. Coulton, and S. McAfee. 2007. How many people live in coastal areas? Journal of Coastal Research 23(5):iii-vi.;Crowell, M., K. Coulton, C. Johnson, J. Westcott, D. Bellomo, S. Edelman, and E. Hirsch. 2010. An Estimate of the U.S. Population Living in 100-Year Coastal Flood Hazard Areas. Journal of Coastal Research 26(2): 201-211.;Crossett, K. M., T. J. Culliton, P. C. Wiley, and T. R. Goodspeed. 2004. Population Trends Along the Coastal United States: 1980-2008. Silver Spring, MD: National Ocean Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce.;Critchley, C. R. 2008. Public opinion and trust in scientists: The role of the research context, and the perceived motivation of stem cell researchers. Public Understanding of Science 17(3):309-327.;Cramer, J. C., B. Hackett, P. P. Craig, E. Vine, M. Levine, T. M. Dietz, and D. Kowalczyk. 1984. Structural behavioral determinants of residential energy use: Summer electricity use in Davis. Energy 9(3):207-216.;Crabtree, G. W., and N. S. Lewis. 2007. Solar energy conversion. Physics Today 60(3):37-42.;Costanza, R., W. J. Mitsch, and J. W. Day. 2006. A new vision for New Orleans and the Mississippi delta: Applying ecological economics and ecological engineering. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(9):465-472.;Cooper, T. F., G. De ‘Ath, K. E. Fabricius, and J. M. Lough. 2008. Declining coral calcification in massive Porites in two nearshore regions of the northern Great Barrier Reef. Global Change Biology 14 (3):529-538.;Cooper, O. R., D. D. Parrish, A. Stohl, M. Trainer, P. Nedelec, V. Thouret, J. P. Cammas, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, D. Tarasick, T. Leblanc, I. S. Mcdermid, D. Jaffe, R. Gao, J. Stith, T. Ryerson, K. Aikin, T. Campos, A. Weinheimer, and M. A. Avery. 2010. Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America. Nature 463(7279):344-348.;Cook, B. I., R. L. Miller, and R. Seager. 2009. Amplification of the North American “Dust Bowl” drought through humaninduced land degradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(13):4997-5001.;Conroy, M. S. 2006. Branded: How the “Certification Revolution” Is Transforming Global Corporations. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society, Xvi, 335 pp.;Confalonieri, U., B. Menne, R. Akhtar, K. L. Ebi, M. Hauengue, R. S. Kovats, B. Revich, and A. Woodward. 2007. Human health. Pp. 391-431 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.:Cambridge University Press.;Confalonieri, U. 2007. Specific vulnerabilities. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85:827-828.;Collins, T. W. 2005. Households, forests, and fire hazard vulnerability in the American West: A case study of a California community. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1):23-37.;Cole, M. A., and E. Neumayer. 2004. Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution. Population and Environment 26(1):5-21.;Cole, C. V., J. Duxbury, J. Freney, O. Heinemeyer, K. Minami, A. Mosier, K. Paustian, N. Rosenberg, N. Sampson, D. Sauerbeck, and Q. Zhao. 1997. Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49(1-3):221-228.;Cohen, B. 2006. Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in Society 28:63-80.;CNA Corporation. 2009. Socioeconomic and Security Implications of Climate Change in China. Conference Paper. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 24 pp.;CNA Corporation. 2007. National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Available at http://securityandclimate.cna.org/report/. Accessed May 13, 2010.;Clarke, L., J. Edmonds, V. Krey, R. Richels, S. Rose, and M. Tavoni. 2009. International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 international scenarios. Energy Economics 31(2):S64-S81.;Clark, G., S. C. Moser, S. J. Ratick, K. Dow, W. B. Meyer, S. Emani, W. Jin, J. X. Kasperson, R. E. Kasperson, and H. E. Schwarz. 1998. Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: The case of Revere, MA, USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 3:59-82.;Clark, B., A. Jorgenson, and J. Kentor. 2010. Militarization and energy consumption: A test of treadmill of destruction theory in comparative perspective. International Journal of Sociology 40(2):23-43.;Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. Lee Davis. 2001b. Hidden health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. Science 293(5533):1257-1259.;Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. L. Davis. 2001a. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Suppl 3):419-425.;Church, J. A., N. J. White, T. Aarup, W. S. Wilson, P. L. Woodworth, C. M. Domingues, J. R. Hunter, and K. Lambeck. 2008. Understanding global sea levels: Past, present and future. Sustainability Science 3(1):9-22, doi:10.1007/s11625-008-0042-4.;Church, J. A., and N. J. White. 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 33(1).;Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, W. B. Norris, and W. D. Braswell. 2003. Error estimates of version 5.0 of MSU-AMSU bulk atmospheric temperatures. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20:613-629.;Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, and W. D. Braswell. 2000. MSU tropospheric temperatures: Dataset construction and radiosonde comparisons. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 17:1153-1170.;Christensen, N. S., A. W. Wood, N. Voisin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and R. N. Palmer. 2004 The effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin. Climatic Change 62(1-3):337-363.;Christensen, J. H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R. K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C. G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.;Chhatre, A., and A. Agrawal. 2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(36):13286-13291.;Cheung, W. W. L., V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, and D. Pauly. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries 10(3):235-251.;Chavez, F. P., J. Ryan, S. E. Lluch-Cota, and M. Niquen C. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299(5604):217-221.;Chapin, F. S., T. S. Rupp, A. M. Starfield, L. O. Dewilde, E. S. Zavaleta, N. Fresco, J. Henkelman, and A. D. Mcguire. 2003. Planning for resilience: Modeling change in human-fire interactions in the Alaskan boreal forest. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5):255-261.;Chapin, F. S. I., P. A. Matson, and H. A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer.;Chao, B. F., Y. H. Wu, and Y. S. Li. 2008. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science 320(5873):212-214.;Changnon, S. A., K. E. Kunkel, and B. C. Reinke. 1996.Impacts and responses to the 1995 heat wave:A call to action.1996. Impacts and responses to the 1995 heat wave: A call to action. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(7):1497-1506.;Changnon, S. 1969. Recent studies of urban effects on precipitation in the U.S. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 50(6): 411-421.;Chan, F., J. A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W. T. Peterson, and B. A. Menge. 2008. Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Science 319 (5865):920.;Chameides, W. L., P. S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, and H. Levy. 1994. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution and world food-production. Science 264(5155):74-77.;CDWR (California Deptartment of Water Resources). 2008. Managing an Uncertain Future: Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for California’s Water. Sacremento, CA: CDWR. Available at http://www.water.ca.gov/climatechange/docs/ClimateChangeWhitePaper.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010..;CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006. Heat-related deaths—United States, 1999-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(29):796-798. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5529a2.htm. Accessed on October 26, 2010.;CCSP. 2009b. Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, D. B. Fagre, C. W. Charles, C. D. Allen, C. Birkeland, F. S. Chapin III, P. M. Groffman, G. R. Guntenspergen, A. K. Knapp, A. D. McGuire, P. J. MulhollandD. P. C. Peters, D. D. Roby, and G. Sugihara, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.;CCSP. 2008f. Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, T. R. Karl, G. A. Meehl, C. D. Miller, S. J. Hassol, A. M. Waple, and W. L. Murray, eds. Washington, DC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 164 pp.;CCSP. 2008e. Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, A. R. Ravishankara, M. J. Kurylo, and C. A. Ennis, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 240 pp.;CCSP. 2008d. Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, S. H. Julius and J. M. West, eds.; J. S. Baron, L. A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B. D. Keller, M. A. Palmer, C. H. Peterson, and J. M. Scott, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 873 pp.;CCSP. 2008c. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, D. C. Bader, C. Covey, W. J. Gutowski, I. M. Held, K. E. Kunkel, R. L. Miller, R. T. Tokmakian, and M. H. Zhang, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.;CCSP. 2008b. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, P. Backlund, A. Janetos, D. Schimel, J. Hatfield, K. Boote, P. Fay, L. Hahn, C. Izaurralde, B. A. Kimball, T. Mader, J. Morgan, D. Ort, W. Polley, A. Thomson, D. Wolfe, M. G. Ryan, S. R. Archer, R. Birdsey, C. Dahm, L. Heath, J. Hicke, D. Hollinger, T. Huxman, G. Okin, R. Oren, J. Randerson, W. Schlesinger, D. Lettenmaier, D. Major, L. Poff, S. Running, L. Hansen, D. Inouye, B. P. Kelly, L. Meyerson, B. Peterson, and R. Shaw, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 362 pp.;CCSP. 2008a. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. L. Gamble, ed., and K. L. Ebi, F. G. Sussman, and T. J. Wilbanks, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.;CCSP. 2007c. Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations. Sub-report 2.1A of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, L. Clarke, J. Edmonds, H. Jacoby, H. Pitcher, J. Reilly, and R. Richels, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.;CCSP. 2007b. Global Change Scenarios: Their Development and Use. Sub-report 2.1B of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, E. A. Parson, V. R. Burkett, K. Fisher-Vanden, D. W. Keith, L. O. Mearns, H. M. Pitcher, C. E. Rosenzweig, and M. D. Webster, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.;CCSP, 2009a. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. G. Titus (coordinating lead author), K. E. Anderson, D. R. Cahoon, D. B. Gesch, S. K. Gill, B. T. Gutierrez, E. R. Thieler, and S. J. Williams (lead authors). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 320 pp.;CCSP (Climate Change Science Program). 2007a. The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.2. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. A. W. King, L. Dilling, G. P. Zimmerman, D. M. Fairman, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, A. Z. Rose, and T. J. Wilbanks, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 242 pp.;CCSP (Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research). 2003. Strategic plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Washington, D.C: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.;Cazenave, A., D. P. Chambers, P. Cipollini, L. L. Fu, J. W. Hurell, M. Merrifield, S. Nerem, H. P. Plag, C. K. Shum, and J. Willis. 2010. The Challenge for Measuring Sea Level Rise and Regional and Global Trends. Plenary Paper presented at OceanObs09, September 21-25, 2009, Venice, Italy.;Cazenave, A., and R. S. Nerem. 2004. Present-day sea level change: Observations and causes. Reviews of Geophysics 42(3).;Cayan, D., M. Tyree, M. Dettinger, H. Hidalgo, T. Das, E. Maurer, P. Bromirski, N. Graham, and R. Flick. 2009. Climate Change Scenarios and Sea Level Rise Estimates for the California 2008 Climate Change Scenarios Assessment. PIER Research Report CEC-500-2009-014. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.;Cavlovic, T., K. H. Baker, R. P. Berrens, and K. Gawande. 2000. A meta-analysis of Kuznets curve studies. Agriculture and Resource Economics Review 29:32-42.;Catarious, D. M., Jr., and R. H. Espach. 2009. Impacts of Climate Change on Colombia’s National and Regional Security. CNA Corporation. Available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA509086&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.;Cashore, B. 2002. Legitimacy and the privatization of environmental governance: How non-state market-driven (NSMD) governance systems gain rule-making authority. Governance 15(4):503-529.;Cash, D. W., W. C. Clark, F. Alcock, N. M. Dickson, N. Eckley, D. H. Guston, J. Jãger, and R. B. Mitchell. 2003. Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14):8086-8091.;Cash, D. W., N. W. Adger, F. Berkets, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young. 2006b. Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society 11(2).;Cash, D. W., J. C. Borck, and A. G. Patt. 2006a. Countering the loading-dock approach to linking science and decision making—comparative analysis of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasting systems. Science, Technology & Human Values 31(4):465-494.;Cash, D. W., and J. Buizer. 2005. Knowledge-Action Systems for Seasonal to Interannual Climate Forecasting: Summary of a Workshop. Report to the Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability, Policy and Global Affairs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.;Cash, D. W. 2001. “In order to aid in diffusing useful and practical information”: Agricultural extension and boundary organizations. Science, Technology & Human Values 26(4):431-453.;Carson, R. T. 2010. The environmental Kuznets curve: Seeking empirical regularity and theoretical structure. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 4:3-23.;Carson, R. T. 1997. Contingent valuation: Theoretical advances and empirical tests since the NOAA panel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79(5):1501-1507.;Carroll, A., and C. Somerville. 2009. Cellulosic biofuels. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60(1):165-182.;Carrico, A., M. P. Vandenbergh, P. C. Stern, G. T. Gardner, T. Dietz, and J. M. Gilligan. 2010. Energy and climate change: Key lessons for implementing the behavioral wedge. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law 1(10-24).;Cao, L., and K. Caldeira. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19):5.;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Cancel;Canadell, J. G., C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, C. B. Field, E. T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, N. P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and G. Marland. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(47):18866-18870.;Canadell, J. G., and M. R. Raupach. 2008. Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320(5882):1456-1457.;Campbell-Lendrum, D., and C. Corvalán 2007. Climate change and developing-country cities: Implications for environmental health and equity. Journal of Urban Health 84:109-117.;Campbell, K. M., J. Gulledge, J. R. Mcneill, J. Podesta, P. Ogden, L. Fuerth, R. J. Woolsey, A. T. Lennon, J. Smith, and R. Weitz. 2007. The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Ft. Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.;Campbell, J. E., D. B. Lobell, and C. B. Field. 2009. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol. Science 324(5930):1055-1057.;Camp, C. D., and K. K. Tung. 2007. Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).;Caldeira, K., and L. Wood. 2008. Global and Arctic climate engineering: Numerical model studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366(1882):4039-4056.;Busby, J. 2007. Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. CAA (Clean Air Act). 1990. P. L. 101-549.;Burton I, L. Bizikova, T. Dickinson, and Y. Howard. 2007. Integrating adaptation into policy: Upscaling evidence from local to global. Climate Policy 7:371-376.